Simon P., Zwang J. Epidemiological Study of Landmines/ERW Accidents and Victims in Kachin, Kayah, and Shan States, Burma, [Danish Demining Group/ Danish Refugee Council, 2017], Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction: Vol. 21 : Iss. 2 , Article 12.


The DDG/DRC researchers study included the details of 290 mine/ERW victims in 211 separate accidents occurring in rural areas up to May 2017. The locations of their incidents were primarily governed by areas where DDG/DRC have activities, so three-quarters (77%) of the incidents were from Kachin State, 15% in Kayah, 5% in northern Shan State, and 3% were from other areas in Myanmar.

The circumstances for the victims in the study is similar to the larger number of victims for whom circumstances are known in the Landmine Monitor.

Adults accounted for 83% of the victims, adolescents 13%, and younger children 4%.

Most of the victims were farmers (40%), laborers (11%), or students (11%), while army soldiers represented 8% of the victims. Males were over five times more at risk for mine/ERW accidents than females (84%, 16%,respectively).

The fatality rate among all mine/ERW victims was 24%. (Landmine Monitor 2017 23%)

Nearly two-thirds of survivors (60%) had to stop their routine activities because of the severity of the disability caused by the accident (59% of the farmers, 61% of the laborers, and 68% of the soldiers). The fatality rate in students was higher (38%) than in other population groups, and 54% of the student survivors had to drop out of school. Unemployment was multiplied by fourfold, and 67% of the survivors were unemployed following their accident.

Over the years, rural populations were significantly more at risk of suffering mine/ERW accidents in

April and May compared to other months, while the number of accidents significantly decreased during the first part of the rainy season (from June to August).

All accidents took place in rural areas, mostly in the forest (31%), on a foot path (17%), or on the side

of a path (13%). Other accident locations (< 6%) were in villages, along a riverbank, or on grazing land, fields, farming land, residential or military areas.

At the time of an accident, the most frequent activities were traveling on foot (28%); collecting firewood (13%); tending animals (12%); traveling by vehicle such as bullock cart, motorcycle, or bicycle (8%); military duty (7%); or hunting or fishing (7%).

Like the Landmine Monitor, the authors came to the conclusion that the data on mine victims was lacking. They recommended that a national mine/ ERW accident notification system be developed as the methodology used to record the accidents by mine action organizations is likely to underestimate the number of victims.

The International Campaign to Ban Landmines calls on the authorities in Myanmar to increase assistance to the landmine disabled under their requirements as a state party to the Convention on the Rights of Disabled People, which requires survey to determine the cause and extent of various disabilities.

See study and annex here: Report  Landmine ERW Epidemiological Study DRC-DDG 2017  and  Annex.